'비올라'에 해당되는 글 4건</h3>

  1. 2007.12.19 반수제와 수제
  2. 2007.12.11 팔 비브라토와 손목 비브라토
  3. 2007.12.07 Yuri Bashmet
  4. 2007.11.29 바이올린과 비올라 (3)

반수제와 수제

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한국에서는 반수제와 수제에 대해서 의견이 많지요.


과연 반수제는 무엇인가 수제란 무엇인가 참 궁금하긴 합니다.


수제라도 손으로만 만드는 것은 아니잖아요. 나무를 잘라서 악기 완성까지 진짜 전동 도구 하나도 없이 만들까 싶기도 하고요.

도구는 어디까지 허용을 해야 되는가 싶기도 하고요.


그리고 수제에도 등급이 있을 수 있고요.


이 설명은 지극히 개인적으로 생각하는 바를 표현한 것입니다.

사람에 따라 다른 의견이 있을 수 있음을 참고하시기 바랍니다.


먼저 수제에 관해서 제가 생각하는 바를 이야기 하자면 크게 3가지 정도 등급이 있습니다.

1. 제작자의 악기

제작자 본인의 라벨을 붙이고 본인이 만든 악기

제작자에 따라 가격차는 크겠지만 이런 악기가 오리지날 의미의 수제인 것 같습니다.


2. 제작자의 제자의 악기

제작자 본인의 라벨을 붙였지만 그 밑에 제작자가 감수했다 등등으로 써진 악기

제품의 가치는 제작자 본인이 만든 악기에는 못미치지만 그보다 싼 가격,

경우에 따라서는 제작자 본인이 만든 악기를 능가하는 소리를 내는 악기입니다.

가끔 제자가 만들었지만 제작자의 라벨을 붙이고 판매되는 경우가 있습니다.


3. 제작자가 운영하는 공방 악기 (워크샵 악기)

워크샵 제작 방식은 분업으로 생산되는 악기입니다.

공방 악기라고도 합니다.

그래서, 제작자가 적극적으로 생산에 관여를 하는 경우 나름대로 괜찮은 악기를 만들 수 있습니다.

이 또한 제작자의 라벨을 붙이고 판매되는 경우가 있습니다.


대충 가격과 재산가치는 1>2>3 정도 될 것이고, 악기 소리는 1>=2>=3 정도 되는 것 같습니다.


경우에 따라서 워크샵 악기도 좋은 소리 내는 악기가 있다는 것이지요.


그럼 반수제는 무엇인가 알아보도록 합시다.

4. 반제품을 수입해서 칠만 새로해서 만드는 악기

말그대로 백통을 수입해서 칠만하는 악기입니다.

이역시도 제작자의 라벨을 붙이고 판매되는 경우가 있습니다.


5. 좋은 나무를 프레스 방식으로 만드는 악기

프레스 방식이라고 항상 품질이 나쁘지는 않지만 수제품과는 좀 다르지요.

나무 자체는 고급 나무를 사용해서 그럭저럭 괜찮은 악기가 나온다고 합니다.

사실상의 공장제이지요.


그럼 공장제는 무엇일까요?

6. 적당한 나무를 프레스 방식으로 만드는 악기

말 그대로 공장에서 찍어내는 악기입니다.



이게 제가 생각하는 현악기의 분류이고요.

3-5까지를 반수제라고 분류하기도 합니다.


반수제가 진짜 참 애매한 개념의 악기인 듯 합니다.


처음 시작은 4-6 정도로 시작하시고, 두번째 구입하시는 악기부터는 1-3 정도 등급에서 구입하시면 어떨까 싶습니다.

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팔 비브라토와 손목 비브라토

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이 주제는 항상 바이올리니스트 들에게 화두에 오르는 주제임에 틀림이 없습니다.


정상급 연주자들은 둘 다 잘 구사하는 사람이 많은 것 같지만 그래도 선호하는 스타일은 있기 마련이겠지요.


인터넷의 논쟁을 찾아보니, 팔 비브라토로 인해서 부상을 입는 경우가 있다고도 하고 낭설이라는 이야기도 있고요.


하이포지션에서는 팔 비브라토가 수월하다는 이야기도 있고요.


1포지션에서는 손목 비브라토가 수월하지만 팔 비브라토도 가능하다는 이야기도 있고요.


Youtube의 동영상을 봐도 같은 동작을 전 계속 팔 비브라토로 보고 있는데,

다른 분은 손목 비브라토라고 보고 있고요.


이게 어쩌면 일관적으로 한종류를 쓰지 않기 때문인 것 같습니다.


오리지날 손목 비브라토는 팔은 가만 있고, 손목만 움직이고,

오리지날 팔 비브라토는 손목은 가만 있고, 팔이 움직인다고 배웁니다.


그러나, 실제로 동영상 보면 다 움직이거든요. 어느 부분을 경직시킬 수 없기 때문이겠지요.

느리게하면 모르겠는데 빠르게 하면 다 움직이더군요.


사실 손목의 움직이는 방향이 좀 다를 것 같은데요.

손목에서는 손목이 손등쪽으로 꺾이면서 비브라토가 시작이 되는 것 같습니다.

팔에서는 손목 부위를 팔을 이용해서 바깥으로 밀어주는 효과가 나기 때문에

손목이 손 바닥쪽으로 꺾이면서 비브라토가 시작되는 것으로 보입니다.


결국 손바닥의 움직임을 잘 보면 구분이 될 것 같거든요.


근데 또 하이 포지션에서는 손목이 기본적으로 꺾여있는 상태에서 출발하니까 그 구분이

좀 모호한 것 같더라고요.



대표적으로 손목 비브라토를 많이 쓰기로 알려진 연주자는 이작 펄만인 것 같고,

팔 비브라토를 많이 쓰기로 알려진 연주자는 아이작 스턴과 미도리라고 하는군요.

두가지를 동시에 (한곡에서 부분부분이 아니고, 한 음을 두 방법을 혼합해서) 사용한다고 알려진 사람은 하이페츠입니다.


근데 또 다른 연주자도 다 스턴과 미도리 스타일로 보이고 있으니 진짜 뭐가 맞는지는 모르겠습니다.

비올라도 연주하는 바이올리니스트, 핀커스 주커만, 줄리안 라츨린은 조금 팔 비브라토가 많아 보입니다.

막심 벤게로프도 좀 그렇고요.


사라장(장영주)는 손목을 좀 더 쓰는 것 같아 보이고요.


펄만은 확실히 남과 좀 다릅니다.


비올라에서는 팔 비브라토를 많이 사용하게 되는데 역시 바쉬메트의 비올라 동영상을 보면 강한 팔 비브라토가 들어갑니다.

그러나 또 1포지션에서는 손목 비브라토를 쓰는 것 같기도 하고요.


전 팔 비브라토만 약간 배운지라 그것만 연습하려고요.

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Yuri Bashmet

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Yuri Bashmet

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Yuri Bashmet
Background information
Born January 24, 1953 (1953-01-24) (age 54)
Rostov-on-Don, Russia USSR
Genre(s) Classical
Occupation(s) Violist
Instrument(s) Viola
Website [www.yuribashmet.com]
Notable instrument(s)
Paolo Testore 1758

Yuri Bashmet (Russian: Юрий Башмет, Ukrainian: Юрій Башмет, (24 January 1953) Russian contemporary conductor and violist.

[edit] Biography

In 1971, he graduated from the Lviv secondary special music school. From 1971 till 1976, he studied in the Moscow Conservatoire. His first viola teacher was Professor Vadim Borisovsky; after whose death in 1972 was succeeded by Professor Feodor Druzhinin. Feodor Druzhinin was also the tutor of Yury Bashmet for the probation period and for his postgraduate study in Moscow Conservatoire (1976-1978).

In 1972, Bashmet purchased a 1758 viola made by Milanese luthier Paolo Testore, which he uses for his performances to date. When he was a student, he was granted the Second Award at the International Contest of Violists in Budapest (1975) and Grand Prix at the ARD International Music Competition in Munich (1976), attaining worldwide recognition.

In the late 1970s – early 1980s, Bashmet developed his career as a solo performer. He began his active concert activities in 1976, with a tour of Germany with the Moscow Chamber Orchestra founded by R. Barshay. He has performed in leading concert halls the world over: in Europe, USA, Canada, Latin America, Australia, New Zealand and Japan. He was the first violist to perform a solo recital in such halls as New York's Carnegie Hall, the Amsterdam Concertgebouw, the Barbican in London, the Berlin Philharmonic, La Scala of Milan, the Great Hall of the Moscow Conservatoire, and the Great Hall of the Leningrad Philharmonic.

Yuri Bashmet has performed under many noted conductors, including Rafael Kubelik, Mstislav Rostropovich, Seiji Ozawa, Valery Gergiev, Gennady Rozhdestvensky, Colin Davis, John Eliot Gardiner, Yehudi Menuhin, Charles Édouard Dutoit, Neville Marriner, Paul Sacher, Michael Tilson Thomas, Kurt Masur, Bernard Haitink, Kent Nagano, Simon Rattle, Yuri Temirkanov, and Nikolaus Harnoncourt.

He started his conducting activity in 1985, consistent with his reputation as a bold contemporary artist not afraid of taking risks.

In 1986, Yuri Bashmet founded the chamber orchestra, “Moscow Soloists”. In 1991, when the orchestra was on the tour in France, Yuri Bashmet, as an Art Director of the Orchestra, signed a temporary contract with the Administration of the city of Montpelier. Afterwards the musicians of the orchestra decided to stay in France; a decision untenable for Bashmet himself, who had committed contractually to return to Russia. He consequently resigned his position with the Orchestra, while inviting the musicians to return to Russia with him. Soon after that the Orchestra disbanded, and its members have joined other ensembles abroad.

In 1992, Bashmet reconstituted the orchestra featuring some of the most talented young musicians of Russia who are graduates and postgraduate students of the Moscow Conservatoire. This orchestra performs in the Great Hall of the Moscow Conservatoire and has toured extensively abroad. Its performances have been recorded for broadcast by major radio companies, including the BBC, Radio Bavaria, Radio France, and Radio Luxembourg.

The orchestra has recorded several CDs, among these a recording of the Alfred Schnittke Triple Concerto (ЕМI Records), soloists: Gidon Kremer, Yuri Bashmet and Mstislav Rostropovich. Another CD, of the Thirteenth String Quartet by Shostakovich and the quintet by Brahms (Sony Classics), was acclaimed "Best Album of 1998" by The Strad magazine, and was nominated for a Grammy Award.

As a soloist and a conductor, Bashmet has performed with leading symphony orchestras: Berliner Philharmoniker, Berlin Symphony, New York Philharmonic, Вауrische Rundfunk, San Francisco Symphony, Chicago Symphony, Boston Symphony, Wiener Philharmonic, Orchestra Radio France, Orchestre de Paris, etc. Repertoire with these orchestras has included the symphonic works of Brahms, Haydn, Schubert, Mozart, Tchaikovsky, and Beethoven. A particularly noted concert at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow featured Shostakovich's Symphony No. 13.

Bashmet has performed recitals, as well as his joint performances together with noted musicians including Mstislav Rostropovich, Gidon Kremer, Sviatoslav Richter, Isaac Stern, Anne-Sophie Mutter, Martha Argerich, Mischa Maisky, M. Portal, Shlomo Mintz, Oleg Kagan, Natalia Gutman, Viktor Tretiakov, and Maria Joao Pires.

Of particular note are Bashmet's performances in collaboration with Sviatoslav Richter, two performers who belong to different generations but share common artistic views. They have staged joint performances at the “December Evenings” festival in the Pushkin museum in Moscow, as well as on world tours. Another of Bashmet's longstanding artistic friendships, personal and in performance, is with Mstislav Rostropovich.

Numerous modern composers have composed works especially for Yuri Bashmet or dedicated to him, including 50 viola concertos and other works: A. Schnittke - "Concerto", "Monologue"; S. Gubaidullina - "Concerto", E. Denisov -"Concerto", D. Tavener - "The Myth Bearer"; M. Pletnev – “Concerto”, A. Golovin - "Sonata-breve". A. Raskatov - "Sonata"; G. Kancheli - "Liturgy " and “Styx”; A. Tchaikovsky – two “Concertos”; Barkauskas - "Concert", A. Eshpay - "Concert"; P. Ruders - "Concerto". A. Schnittke - "Concerto for three" (dedicated to Mstislav Rostropovich, Yuri Bashmet, Gidon Kremer), and many other. Yuri Bashmet has transcribed the "String Trio" by A. Schnittke for string orchestra; this work was issued by “Sikorsky” (Vienna) under the name “Trio - Sonata”).

Particular works for which Bashmet is known include “Chakona by J.S. Bach, Sonata “Arpeggioni” by F. Schubert, Symphonia Concertante for violin and viola by W. Mozart, Viola Sonata by D. Shostakovich, and the Concerto for viola and orchestra by A. Schnittke.

Yuri Bashmet has participated in many festivals al over the world: Tanglewood (USA), Bordeaux, Biarritz, Menton (France), Brussels, Kainuu, Mikkeli (Finland), Kroyt (Germany), Siena, Sorrento, Camerino, Streza (Italy), and "March Music Lias" (Ruse, Bulgaria). He is an Artistic director and one of the organizers of the festivals in Rolandsek (Germany), Tur (France) and Elba Island (Italy). He is a regular participant of the Promenade-Concerts in Albert-Hall (London, UK). The highest appraisal of Bashmet’s talent was his appointment to the position of the art director of the “December evenings” music festival in Moscow, a position held for 17 years by Sviatoslav Richter.

Yuri Bashmet is a founder and a Jury Chairman of the International Contest of Violists in Moscow, the first and only event of its kind in Russia. He is the President of the L. Tertis International Contest of Violists in Great Britain, the member of Jury for the violists’ contests in Munich and “Maurice Vie” in Paris.

Bashmet has won acclaim with music critics on the international scene. Quotation from the German press: “the first violist of the world” - Yury Bashmet. "...His perfect interpretation and the brilliance of sound he can be compared only to David Oistrakh..."

Cinema and TV broadcasting companies of different countries (Great Britain, France, Russia) have filmed several movies about his art. Several times his CDs won prestigious European awards, including the “Diapason d’or” and "Choc."

Bashmet's artistry has won recognition in various awards and regalia in Russia and abroad. He has been granted the high titles of the Honorary Artist of RSFSR (1983), Honorary Artist of the USSR (1991), State Award of the USSR (1986), State Awards of the Russian Federation (1994 and 1996), Аward-1993 "Best Musical Instrument Performer of the Year” (a title comparable to the “Oscar” in cinema). Yuri Bashmet is an Honorary Academician of the London Academy of Arts.

In 1995, he was awarded one of the most prestigious awards in the world, of the "Sonnings Musikfond” in Copenhagen. Previous recipients include Igor Stravinsky, Leonard Bernstein, Benjamin Britten, Yehudi Menuhin, Isaac Stern, Arthur Rubinstein, Dmitri Shostakovich, Mstislav Rostropovich, Sviatoslav Richter, and Gidon Kremer.

In 1999, by the Act of the Minister of Culture of the Republic of France, Yuri Bashmet was grated the rank of the Officer of Arts and Literature. In the same time the Prime Minister of Lithuania marked his invaluable impact to the Art by granting Bashmet the highest honor of the Republic of Lithuania; in 2000 the President of Italy granted him a honor “For Contribution to Motherland”, and in 2002, the president of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin presented him the honor “For Contribution to Motherland”, 3rd grade. In 2003, Yuri Bashmet was granted the rank of Commander of the French Legion of Honor.

In 2000, the Russian Biographic Society granted Yuri Bashmet the honorary title “The Man of the Year”, in 2001 – “Zealot of the Enlightenment”. In 2003, Bashmet has become the laureate of the “Olympus” National Award.

Since 1978, Yuri Bashmet teaches students of the Moscow Conservatoire; at first at the position of docent (since 1988), now he is a professor of the Moscow Conservatoire (since 1996).

Since 1980, Yuri Bashmet conducts master classes in Japan, Europe, USA, and Hong Kong. He teaches at the summer courses in the music academies of Kidzhan (Siena, Italy) and Tours (France). His students have won many of the international contests and now are performing in orchestras worldwide.

In 1996, he created and heads the “Experimental Chair of Viola”, where in addition to the works of solo viola repertoire, the curriculum includes extended studies of the viola parts in the chamber, operatic and symphonic music, as well as advanced study of the performance styles of the past and the present time.

Yuri Bashmet leads national education projects, as a presenter and art director of the TV programs "The Station of Dream" and "Music in the Museums of the World".

Yuri Bashmet has participated in many large-scale charity actions of the international importance, in Carnegie Hall (with Elton John and Stevie Wonder), in London (in the memory of Princess Diana); in the concerts, whose proceeds were transferred to the funds aimed to help the victims of the natural disasters in Armenia, Japan, and to the funds helping handicapped children.

The International Charity Fund, established by Yuri Bashmet, has established the Shostakovich International Award for outstanding achievements in the field of the international art. This award was granted to Gidon Kremer, Thomas Quasthoff, Victor Tretyakov, Valery Gergiev, Anne-Sophie Mutter, Olga Borodina, Irina Antonova, Natalia Gutman, and Evgeny Kissin. Its impact into the peacemaking activities can hardly be overestimated.

[edit] Awards

[edit] External links

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바이올린과 비올라

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사용자 삽입 이미지

바이올린과 비올라

크기만 차이가 나는 것이 아니라 그 음색도 차이가 난다.

날카로우면서 민감한 바이올린군
부드러우면서 구수한 비올라군

난 둘 다 군이다...

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